Themes and discussion

Find out more about organic arable farming and organic livestock husbandry, join the discussions, and exchange ideas and information with colleagues and scientists.

Cropping systems

Cropping systems

The yield gap that normally exists between organic and conventional production practices is caused by different crop-specific factors. The main yield-limiting factor in cereals and tubers is nutrient availability; nitrogen deficiency particularly leads to yield reductions. Weeds and diseases can cause major yield losses in legumes, and attacks of insect pests on oil crops may limit yield significantly. Each crop group shows variations in susceptibility to the different yield-limiting factors. Choice of crop variety and crop species, mixing varieties or species, and the design of a crop rotation will all have a major impact on crop yield and quality.

On this page, you can find tools and resources that can help you improve the cultivation of specific crops, and you can discuss various crop-specific topics with others.



Featured tools

Cultivation in rows – Weed control in spring cereal grainsMost popular tool

Cultivation in rows – Weed control in spring cereal grains

By increasing the row spacing from 12.5 cm to 25 cm in your spring cereal grains it will be possible to both carry out weed control and simultaneously…

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Free-range laying hens: providing species-appropriate and sustainable husbandryLatest tool

Free-range laying hens: providing species-appropriate and sustainable husbandry

The leaflet provides the most important information on the design, use and care of outdoor runs for laying hens. It includes information on suitable…

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Tools

TitleIssuing organisationProjectYear of releaseRating
A farmer’s guide to organic fruit and vegetable productionOCW - Organic Centre WalesOK-Net Arable20083.5 (2)
Advanced system in wheat: Combination of agronomical levels: The French...PUREOK-Net Arable-5 (1)
Catch crop in maize (OK-Net Arable Practice Abstract)FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20174 (1)
Cereal Disease EncyclopaediaAHDB - Agriculture and Horticulture Development...OK-Net Arable2008
Challenges of Organic Arable Farming 1st module: Strategies to enhance soil...IAMB - Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of BariOK-Net Arable2017
Challenges of Organic Arable Farming 2nd module: Fertilization strategies to...IAMB - Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of BariOK-Net Arable2017
Challenges of Organic Arable Farming 4th module: Technical tools, strategies...IAMB - Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of BariOK-Net Arable2017
Challenges of Organic Arable Farming 5th module: Crops specific problems and...IAMB - Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of BariOK-Net Arable2017
Choosing cover crops for arable crop rotationsITAB - Institute for Organic Agriculture and FoodOK-Net Arable2018
Controlled traffic farming: A new track for soil and weed control in organic...InagroOK-Net Arable2018
Cover crop and living mulch toolboxTechnical University of Munich TUM, School of Life...OK-Net Arable20143.4 (10)
Cover crop mulches and no-till soybeanAIAB - Associazione Italiana Agricoltura BiologicaOK-Net Arable2017
Crop management of linseedFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20162 (1)
Crop Management of Rapeseed and Pollen Beetle ControlFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20164 (1)
Crop rotation and its ability to suppress perennial weedsSEGESOK-Net Arable20174.5 (2)
Crop rotation and its ability to suppress perennial weedsSEGESOK-Net Arable20163 (1)
Crop Rotation in Organic SystemsOACC - Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada,...OK-Net Arable-
Crop rotations on diversified farmsSouthern Regional Extension ForestryOK-Net Arable2013
Cultivating a diverse wheat population suitable for low-input and organic...ORC - Organic Research Centre, Elm FarmOK-Net Arable20175 (1)
Cultivation in rows – Catch crops - tolerance and regrowthAU - Aarhus University , KU - Copenhagen University , AgroIntelli , Økologisk VKST , Barritskov Land- og Skovbrug , SEGESOK-Net Arable2018
Cultivation in rows – cereals with catch cropsSEGES , AU - Aarhus University , KU - Copenhagen University , AgroIntelli , Økologisk VKST , Barritskov Land- og SkovbrugOK-Net Arable2018
Cultivation in rows – Nitrogen fixation by catch crops and their effect on yieldSEGES , AU - Aarhus University , KU - Copenhagen University , AgroIntelli , Økologisk VKST , Barritskov Land- og SkovbrugOK-Net Arable2018
Cultivation in rows – Sowing time for catch cropsAU - Aarhus University , KU - Copenhagen University , AgroIntelli , Økologisk VKST , Barritskov Land- og Skovbrug , SEGESOK-Net Arable20185 (2)
Cultivation in rows – Weed control between stubble rowsAU - Aarhus University , KU - Copenhagen University , AgroIntelli , Økologisk VKST , Barritskov Land- og Skovbrug , SEGESOK-Net Arable2018
Cultivation in rows – Weed control in spring cereal grainsAU - Aarhus University , KU - Copenhagen University , AgroIntelli , Økologisk VKST , Barritskov Land- og Skovbrug , SEGESOK-Net Arable20185 (1)
Cultivation of faba beansLLG - Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und...OK-Net EcoFeed2014
Cultivation of soybeansRegierungspräsidium FreiburgOK-Net EcoFeed2018
Demonstration of Hoeing Machines in Arable FarmingFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2011
Demonstration of Plough DethatchersFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20144.5 (2)
Direct drilling of winter cerealsAIAB - Associazione Italiana Agricoltura BiologicaOK-Net Arable2018
Direct Sowing of MaizeFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2015
Direct sowing with green manureBioselena - Foundation for organic agriculture , IFOAM EUOK-Net Arable2018
Diverse fertility building leys in arable rotationsORC - Organic Research Centre, Elm FarmOK-Net Arable20173.5 (2)
Dry Forages: Process and techniques (OK-Net EcoFeed Practice Abstract)AIAB - Associazione Italiana Agricoltura BiologicaOK-Net EcoFeed2020
DSS "Weed Control in Organic Winter Wheat Production"University of BonnOK-Net Arable2004
ECOPHYTOPIC – The portal for integrated crop protection of arable cropsACTA - Les Instituts Techniques AgricolesOK-Net Arable-3.3 (3)
Feeding pigs silageInnovative FarmersOK-Net EcoFeed2016
Feedstuffs for organic pigsCREA - Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e...OK-Net EcoFeed2012
Foraging of pigs in outdoor areas (OK-Net Ecofeed Practice Abstract)AU - Aarhus UniversityOK-Net EcoFeed2020
Foraging sows on high-protein grasslandITAB - Institute for Organic Agriculture and FoodOK-Net EcoFeed2018
Free-range laying hens: providing species-appropriate and sustainable husbandryFiBL - Research Institute of Organic Agriculture , Bioland Beratung , KÖN - Kompetenzzentrum Ökolandbau Niedersachsen , Bio AustriaOK-Net EcoFeed2010
Fulfilling 100 % organic poultry diets: roughage and foraging from the rangeORC - Organic Research Centre, Elm FarmOK-Net EcoFeed2015
Fulfilling 100% organic pig diets: Feeding roughage and foraging from the rangeORC - Organic Research Centre, Elm FarmOK-Net EcoFeed20153 (2)
Grain legumes and soil fertility - Strategies for a successful cultivationBfN - Federal Agency for Nature ConservationOK-Net Arable20143.5 (2)
Grass protein - a golden chance to improve organic farmingSEGESOK-Net EcoFeed2018
Green manure and cover crops in organic agriculture: general introductionITAB - Institute for Organic Agriculture and FoodOK-Net Arable2012
Green manure and cover crops in organic agriculture: guide to the choice of the...ITAB - Institute for Organic Agriculture and FoodOK-Net Arable20124 (3)
Growing cover crops in organic arable crop rotations: Best practices from...SEGESOK-Net Arable20174 (2)
Growing cover crops in organic arable crop rotations: best practices from...SEGESOK-Net Arable2016
Hairy Vetch – an Excellent Green Manure for Dry ConditionsFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20144 (2)
Highcrop picture toolSEGESOK-Net Arable2013
How to successfully convert to organic arable farmingLFI - Ländliches Fortbildungsinstitut ÖsterreichOK-Net Arable20175 (2)
Incorporating Green ManuresFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20134.5 (2)
Inter-row cultivation for mechanical weed control in winter oilseed rapePUREOK-Net Arable-
Intercropping grain peas with barleyFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2015
Intercropping grain peas with barley (OK-Net Arable Practice Abstract)FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20174.3 (3)
Knowledge exchange platform for agroecologySOLAGROOK-Net Arable-3.2 (6)
LeNiBa - the KTBL / isip app for nitrogen balancing of legumesKTBL - Kuratorium für Technik und Bauwesen in der...OK-Net Arable-
Ley Destruction with Shallow Ploughing or CultivatorsFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2016
Mechanical Weed Control in MaizeFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2013
Mechanical weeding in arable cropsITAB - Institute for Organic Agriculture and FoodOK-Net Arable20124.6 (9)
Modification/change of sowing date in winter wheatPUREOK-Net Arable2015
Monitoring and comparing cover crop performancesITAB - Institute for Organic Agriculture and FoodOK-Net Arable2018
NDICEA - Nitrogen Planer – version 6.2LBI - Louis Bolk InstituteOK-Net Arable20144 (4)
Nitrogen budget calculator. A tool to calculate N-budgets in organic forage...ZALF - Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape...20133.8 (4)
Nitrogen supply for winter oilseed rape (OK-Net Arable Practice Abstract)FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20174 (1)
No-till cultivation of maize in rolled forage peas (OK-Net Arable Practice...FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2017
Nutrient supplyFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20112 (1)
Oekolandbau.de: portal for organic plant productionBLE - Federal Office for Agriculture and FoodOK-Net Arable20153 (10)
Oregon Tilth 2017 WEBINAR SERIESOregon TilthOK-Net Arable2017
Organic CerealsFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20104 (3)
Organic Cover Cropping and IntercroppingWashington State University - PuyallupOK-Net Arable2011
Organic cultivation in autumn 2016 - Varieties, Seeds and Crop managementLFI - Ländliches Fortbildungsinstitut ÖsterreichOK-Net Arable2016
Organic Cultivation in Spring 2016 - Varieties, Seeds and Crop managementLFI - Ländliches Fortbildungsinstitut ÖsterreichOK-Net Arable2016
Organic Cultivation of Green PeasLFI - Ländliches Fortbildungsinstitut ÖsterreichOK-Net Arable2016
Organic farming Guidelines for pest and disease control and weed management in...Uprawy ekologiczneOK-Net Arable-4 (3)
Organic field beansFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2009
Organic Field Crop ProductionOACC - Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada,...OK-Net Arable-
Organic field peasFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2009
Organic grain legumes at a glanceFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2009
Organic maizeFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2008
Organic quality wheat production - Results of long-term field trials of...LFI - Ländliches Fortbildungsinstitut ÖsterreichOK-Net Arable2016
Organic rapeseedFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2011
Organic Small Grain ProductionSouthern Regional Extension ForestryOK-Net Arable2011
Organic soyaFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2009
Organic Soybean made easyFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2018
Organic Soybean production in EuropeÖMKi - Hungarian Research Institute of Organic...OK-Net Arable2016
Organic Weed Management: A Practical GuideCharles MerfieldOK-Net Arable2000
Pest and Disease Control in Grass and Forage CropsFarming ConnectOK-Net Arable2013
Pest Management in Organic Cropping SystemsOACC - Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada,...OK-Net Arable-
Plant breeding with farmers. A technical manualICARDA - International Center for Agricultural...OK-Net Arable2012
Plants and planting designs for organic poultry rangesØkologisk Landsforening (Danish Organic National...OK-Net EcoFeed2015
Potato Crop ManagementFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2010
Poultry feeding in organic farmingITAB - Institute for Organic Agriculture and FoodOK-Net EcoFeed2015
Practical advice for organic production of lupinesLandesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft und...OK-Net Arable20144 (4)
Processing Quality of Organic WheatFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2015
Rape pollen beetleFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20144.5 (2)
Reduced Tillage Systems - Practical RecommendationFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20143.7 (3)
Regionally adapted humus balance in organic farmingLfULG - Sächsische Landesanstalt für Umwelt,...OK-Net Arable20133.7 (3)
Results an lessons learnt from field vegetables activity - cabbagePUREOK-Net Arable-
Results and lessons learnt from wheat-based cropping system activityPUREOK-Net Arable-
Rolling of grains to prevent winter kill damage (OK-Net Arable Practice...FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2017
ROTOR: organic crop rotation plannerZALF - Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape...OK-Net Arable20074.6 (11)
Satellite based and camera-controlled steering systemsFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20152 (1)
SmartSOIL ToolAU - Aarhus UniversityOK-Net Arable20152 (3)
Soil and Fertility Management in Organic SystemsOACC - Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada,...OK-Net Arable-5 (1)
Soil protection and Crop RotationFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2007
SOILappSchool of Advanced Studies Sant'Anna, Institute of... , Scuola Esperienziale Itinerante di Agricoltura... , AEGILOPS - The Greek Network for Biodiversity and...OK-Net Arable2018
Sort Out Your Soil: A practical guide to green manuresCotswold Seeds Ltd. , Garden OrganicOK-Net Arable-4 (5)
Soybean silageAIAB - Associazione Italiana Agricoltura BiologicaOK-Net Arable2018
Successful cultivation of grain legumes mixed with cerealsFiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2017
Testing peas for legume fatigue (OK-Net Arable Practice Abstract)FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20175 (1)
The Muencheberg Soil Quality Rating (SQR)ZALF - Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape...OK-Net Arable20074 (4)
The use of legumes - Nature-compatible cultivation practicesBfN - Federal Agency for Nature ConservationOK-Net Arable2014
Toasting soybeans for feeding laying hens (OK-Net EcoFeed Video)Donau Soja , FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net EcoFeed2020
Transition to organic productionOACC - Organic Agriculture Centre of Canada,...OK-Net Arable-
Use of variety mixtures to reduce disease, increase resource-use efficiency...PUREOK-Net Arable-
Using crop rotation to control wireworms (OK-Net Arable Practice Abstract)FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20174 (1)
Utilisation of waste heat from biogas plants for drying fine-grained legumes...Bioland Beratung GmbHOK-Net EcoFeed2020
Weed Control in Grass and Forage CropsIBERS Grassland Development CentreOK-Net Arable2013
Weed control in organic farming through mechanical solutionsUniversity of KasselOK-Net Arable20113.5 (4)
Weed control in soy with the finger weeder (OK-Net Arable Practice Abstract)FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable2017
Weed harrowing in spring cerealsPUREOK-Net Arable-
Weed trimming in soybeansAIAB - Associazione Italiana Agricoltura BiologicaOK-Net Arable2017
Winter field peas as green manure before maize (OK-Net Arable Practice Abstract)FiBL - Research Institute of Organic AgricultureOK-Net Arable20174.5 (2)


Discussion forum

Here you can discuss your problems and solutions for this theme